Recently, I had a debate with a collaborator, who argued that good model fit in confirmatory factor analysis provides support for the theory underlying the questionnaire which is represented by the measurement model of the factor analysis. I disagreed with this point of view, for statistical and epistemological reasons. To explain the concept, I came up with the following metaphor. Imagine you’re taking a leisurely stroll on the beach. Your feet sink into the sand with every step, the waves are lapping at the beach, and the reeds in the dunes are rustling in a gentle breeze.